Catalonia history

This translation is done with the Google translator, and it is obvious that it is not correct, and I hope to do it, with an official translator, but it will take a little time.
If there is someone who wants and is able to do a translation from Spanish to English correctly, please contact me via Mail, otherwise I will wait to make the translation into English as quickly as possible, thank you very much

               The territory that makes up the current Catalonia has been populated for at least half a million years, the fact of the situation, a society that lives facing the sea, has passed through our country since the Neolithic revolution, discovered in agriculture various civilizations that have left their marks, Greeks, Carthaginians and especially Romans who, unlike the others, settled for about 7 centuries and left us with two very important things: the Catalan language and Roman Law, the Visigoths, who replaced The Romans left us many things, apart from the officialization of the Catholic religion, which was already the religion of the people, the arrival of the Arabs in the early eighth century formed two Catalonia, Northern Catalonia, which was only under control Arab for a century, and Catalonia that from the Llobregat river down, which was more than four centuries, who shapes the current Catalonia is the Christian Catalonia of the North, which from around the year 900, begins to become independent from its lord, the King of the Franks, from the year 1000 Catalonia is completely independent, this territory governed by several counts who will eventually become feudatories of the count from Barcelona,It is becoming known by the name of Catalu ñ to about a ñ or 1100, shortly before the Count of Barcelona form a confederation or n with the king of Arag or n and form the Crown of Arag it or n, in Catalu ñ a, however, m to Xima authority be to always Count of Barcelona who was king a personal capacity, Catalonia shall never king were people totally independent with the same head of state from more or less early of the XIII century, Catalonia will live a time of great splendor with the conquest of the current Balearic Islands and the current territory of Valencia and especially thanks to the Mediterranean trade, Catalonia, as well as the Italian republics will become one of the axes of the derived business of the silk road, which includes trade with the Hanseatic League, especially the port of Bergen, the fifteenth century is a century of internal infighting and crises that affect even the population, it is at the end of this s iglo that the Crown of Aragon unites with Castilla with inferior conditions, despite everything they are two crowns with the same king but with different laws, the Crown of Aragon continues with its federal structure, not exactly confederal, and the Crown Castilla governed by more authoritarian systems, in Catalonia, a body established in the fourteenth century, became, in these years, together with the municipal councils, the true government of Catalonia, when from the beginning of the sixteenth century the Spanish Crown tried to break with the system federal there is a revolt in favor of independence that fails and seeks the support of the French crown that is as absorbing as the Spanish crown, the end of the war is somewhat tied, with the loss of Roussillon and other Catalan territories that come to depend on the French crown, the fifteenth century was a period of crisis but it had a very positive fact, Catalan farmers stop being servants, that is, they are no longer subject to the feudal lord, with which they become semi-owners, this condition means that at the end of the 17th century, Catalonia began to become a prosperous territory, prosperity that will be cut short by the War of Succession, the king of Spain Carlos II dies without descendants and this problem causes a War in Europe, France and the Crown of Castile in favor of Felipe V, grandson of Louis XIV, the Sun King, and Carlos of Austria son of the emperor Maximiliano, who has the support of England,Austria and Holland, the end of the War is catastrophic for Catalonia, abandoned by the English with whom they had signed an agreement to protect their freedoms, King Felipe V adopts the French system, based on the laws of Castile, which already had a Uniform character, the country is totally subject to the laws and the Castilian administrative organization, we had already pointed out that at the end of the 17th century an economic renaissance began based on the formation of capital from agriculture, thanks to work the serious moments of end of the War of Succession when the Spanish government established a harsh political, economic and human repression against those who have stood out as supporters of Charles of Austria who had remained in the country, many emigrated to Vienna, more or less from 1735 begins a period of prosperity, thanks to legal trade with the Mediterranean and above all illegal trade with America, trade reserved only for the Crown of Castile, until well into the 18th century the peoples of the Crown of Aragon could not legally trade with America, despite the prohibition, trade with America based on fabrics and spirits, it helped the formation of more capitals and was the basis of the pre-industrial stage, first and the true industrial revolution in the 19th century, the only one according to European models that occurs in Spain, with a handicap, and that is, Catalonia did not it has neither iron nor coal, the basis of the first industrialization, when the steam turbine appears things change, the Basque Country industry is another story, these economic changes generate a bourgeoisie that has very difficult to conquer political power, with what which becomes economically very entrepreneurial and politically very conservative, because it depends, to a large extent, on the Spanish market, especially after its intervention. n in the fall of the Old Spanish Regime and the triumph, at least economic, of liberalism, the triumph of romanticism in Europe has a great impact in Catalonia, which dreams of a return to the prosperity of the Middle Ages, this first literary movement and artistic, at the end of the 19th century it will look for formulas, firstly federalism that fails because it has no support in Castile and due to the failure the birth of autonomism that after a dictatorial period (1923-1930), finds an understanding in the Republican period 1931- 1936, 1936-1939 War, the republic, although with cuts, grants autonomy in Catalonia and later in the Basque Country and Galicia, precisely the autonomist policy of the Republic is one of the determining factors of the Civil War, the triumph of the General Franco is one of the periods of maximum repression against the political personality of Catalonia, which is also experiencing times of economic misery, especially among 1,940 to 1,960. economic liberalization and the beginning of the tourist phenomenon revive the Catalan economy, with the death of General Franco, political freedoms are recovered and there is talk of autonomy again, which was achieved in 1980, always, however, with much suspicion for part of the Government of Madrid, the orographic composition of Catalonia gives it a characteristic climate and vegetation, although it is, in general, a Mediterranean climate and vegetation, in Catalonia we find a more or less proportion of all the climates of Western Europe, we think that in some places separate the sea from the mountains between 2,500 and 3,000 meters high, only about 100 km. On the other hand, the coastal mountain range by the sea and the pre-coastal mountains about 30 or 40 km from the coast with peaks of more 1000 m, sometimes 1700 m., makes the territory behind the pre-coastal mountain range causes the interior of Catalonia to have a continental climate, this variety climate is a guarantee for the development of tourism, one of the important sources of wealth for a good number of years and that allows the development of other types of tourism, apart from those who only seek the sun, otherwise, Catalonia has an important artistic wealth, the Iberian world, the Roman world, the Romanesque and Gothic arts of the Middle Ages, modernism with Gaudí as leader, as well as some internationally renowned painters such as Picasso who started his artistic activity in Barcelona, Mir or , Dal í and Tapies, all these arts and characters mentioned have generally with specs museums í GRAPHICS dedicated to these arts and this work, the fact that Barcelona re u na an important part of the legacy art í Catal stico to n, does not mean there are no other places worth visiting such as museums of Montserrat, Tarragona, Vic, Girona, Lleida, Badalona, Matar or , etc., and especially a lot of museums loc ales, the nThe total number is close to five hundred.

Jordi Monés

April 8, 2013

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